Maritime Sicherheit
Typographie

In ihrer zweiten maritimen Erklärung bekennen sich die Außenminister der G7-Staaten zur Freiheit der Meere und dessen friedlicher Nutzung. Die Außenminister rufen andere Staaten und Organisationen dazu auf, noch stärker gemeinsam an der Bewältigung maritimer Herausforderungen zu arbeiten. Auf den Internetseiten des Auswärtigen Amtes erhält man die Erklärung als Publikation. Wir haben sie für Sie zum Download bereit.

 

Zur Publikation G7 Foreign Ministers‘ Statement on Maritime Security vom 11.04.2016, Hiroshima, Japan: 160411_G7_Maritime_Security.pdf (pdf | 3 Seiten | 105 KB )

G7 Foreign Ministers’ Declaration on Maritime Security
Lübeck, 15 April 2015

The maritime domain is a cornerstone of the livelihood of humanity, habitat,
resources and transport routes for up to 90 per cent of intercontinental trade. It
connects states and regions and makes otherwise distant nations neighbours.
Humankind depends on a safe, sound and secure maritime domain in order to
preserve peace, enhance international security and stability, feed billions of people,
foster human development, generate economic growth and prosperity, secure the
energy supply and preserve ecological diversity and coastal livelihoods. As the
world’s population grows, our reliance on the oceans as a highway for commerce and
a source of food and resources will increase even more. The free and unimpeded
use of the world’s oceans undergirds every nation’s journey into the future.

We, the Foreign Ministers of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United
Kingdom, the United States of America and the High Representative of the European
Union, are convinced that we can comprehensively counter threats to maritime
security only if we follow a cooperative, rules-based cross-sector approach and
coordinate our actions nationally, regionally and globally. We are persuaded that
lasting maritime security can only be achieved if we join forces in order to strengthen
maritime governance in pursuit of rules-based, sustainable use of seas and oceans.
We reiterate our commitment to the freedoms of navigation and overflight and other
internationally lawful uses of the high seas and the exclusive economic zones as well
as to the related rights and freedoms in other maritime zones, including the rights of
innocent passage, transit passage and archipelagic sea lanes passage consistent
with international law. We further reiterate our commitment to unimpeded lawful
commerce, the safety and security of seafarers and passengers, and the
conservation and sustainable use of natural and marine resources including marine
biodiversity.
We are committed to maintaining a maritime order based upon the principles of
international law, in particular as reflected in the United Nations Convention on the
Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). We continue to observe the situation in the East and
South China Seas and are concerned by any unilateral actions, such as large scale
land reclamation, which change the status quo and increase tensions. We strongly
oppose any attempt to assert territorial or maritime claims through the use of
intimidation, coercion or force. We call on all states to pursue the peaceful
management or settlement of maritime disputes in accordance with international law,
including through internationally recognised legal dispute settlement mechanisms,
and to fully implement any decisions rendered by the relevant courts and tribunals
which are binding on them. We underline the importance of coastal states refraining
from unilateral actions that cause permanent physical change to the marine
environment in areas pending final delimitation.
We firmly condemn acts of piracy and armed robbery at sea, transnational organised
crime and terrorism in the maritime domain, contraband trade, trafficking of human
beings, smuggling of migrants, trafficking of weapons and narcotics, illegal,
unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing, trafficking in protected species of wild
fauna and flora, and other illegal maritime activities. These constitute serious and
intolerable threats to the life and wellbeing of passengers and crews on board ships,
to marine biodiversity and food security, to the rule of law and to freedom of
navigation and lawful trade and transport. They pose major risks to the stability and
development of coastal states in areas prone to piracy and other forms of maritime
crime and maritime terrorist activity. We oppose the deliberate obstruction of sea
lanes aimed at interrupting trade, traffic and tourism, as well as threats against critical
sea-borne infrastructure and against energy supply security in the maritime domain.
The development of standards for safe navigation, protection of the marine
environment, communication, and operation of maritime shipping has long been an
area of international cooperation. We call upon governments, port authorities,
shipping companies, ship owners, operators, shipmasters and crews to apply and
implement existing law and guidance in order to increase maritime safety and
security, such as the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS),
the International Ship and Port Facility Security Code (ISPS), the International
Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL) and the
International Maritime Organization’s (IMO) Guidance to ship owners, ship operators,
shipmasters and crews on preventing and suppressing acts of piracy and armed
robbery against ships. We call on ship owners, ship operators, shipmasters and
crews to report any criminal act at sea immediately in order to prevent future attacks
and to improve data collection.

We reaffirm our commitment to further international cooperation on combating
maritime security threats. We commend the United Nations and its specialised
bodies, NATO’s Operations Ocean Shield and Active Endeavour and the European
Union Naval Force Operation Atalanta in close collaboration with their partners, the
US-led Combined Maritime Force and national contributors, as well as other
initiatives such as the Contact Group on Piracy off the Coast of Somalia (CGPCS)
and the G7++ Friends of the Gulf of Guinea Group (FoGG) for their achievements as
regards enhancing security in the maritime domain and strengthening rules-based
maritime governance.
We welcome NATO’s work to put its existing Alliance Maritime Strategy (AMS) into
action, the EU Maritime Security Strategy (EUMSS) and the corresponding Action
Plan, 2050 Africa's Integrated Maritime Strategy as well as the UK and US National
Strategies for Maritime Security. These are all milestone documents towards a more
secure global maritime domain.
We understand that the causes of maritime crime lie ashore and that crime can be
exacerbated by the absence of effective, fair, accountable, and transparent
governmental institutions, judicial systems and law enforcement. We reaffirm our
commitment to assist in tackling existing shortcomings in this regard. In this light we
salute the EU’s comprehensive approach in the Horn of Africa and the EU Strategy
and Action Plan on the Gulf of Guinea. We also take note of the Regional Fusion and
Law Enforcement Centre for Safety and Security at Sea (REFLECS3) multinational
project in the Seychelles.
We welcome and encourage research activities aimed at providing scientific and
technological support to enhance maritime security, fostering information sharing and
collaboration and, thus, adding to the sustainable use of the global maritime domain.
We support the incorporation of their findings into the development and
implementation of maritime security policies, as appropriate.


Fostering regional cooperation, ownership and responsibility
1. We support the establishment of functioning regional mechanisms of cooperation
on enhanced maritime security. National and regional ownership and
responsibility are key to improving maritime security in critical areas. We
particularly underline the importance of regional agreements and instruments
such as the Asia-Pacific Code for Unplanned Encounters at Sea, the Regional
Cooperation Agreement on Combating Piracy and Armed Robbery against Ships
in Asia (ReCAAP), the Code of Conduct concerning the Repression of Piracy and
Armed Robbery against Ships in the Western Indian Ocean and the Gulf of Aden
(“Djibouti Code of Conduct”) and the Code of Conduct concerning the Repression
of Piracy, Armed Robbery against Ships and Illicit Maritime Activity in West and
Central Africa (“Yaoundé Code of Conduct”). We call for the acceleration of work
on a comprehensive Code of Conduct in the South China Sea and, in the interim,
emphasise our support for the 2002 ASEAN Declaration on the Conduct of
Parties in the South China Sea. We highlight the constructive role of practical
confidence-building measures, such as the establishment of direct links of
communication in cases of crisis and efforts to establish guiding principles and
rules to govern activities, such as the ASEAN – China talks on a Code of Conduct
on the South China Sea. We encourage States to do their utmost to implement
their commitments, and we intend to assist them within the scope of our abilities
and regional priorities. We furthermore welcome initiatives on maritime security in
relevant fora, such as the East Asia Summit, the ASEAN Regional Forum, the
EU-ASEAN cooperation, and regionally based Coast Guard Forums.


Enhancing capability development and capacity-building
2. We are committed to supporting comprehensive capability development and
capacity-building in regions affected by piracy and other forms of maritime crime,
including in ports and coastal waters, in order to enable and enhance the capacity
of coastal states, regional and interregional maritime security regimes. We
encourage third parties to contribute to the various multi-donor trust funds in this
field, to which several G7 partners are major donors. We actively coordinate and
assist capacity and capability-building measures in order to maximise their effect,
as practised in the Horn of Africa through the CGPCS Working Group on Capacity
Building, in Asia through ReCAAP, and in the Gulf of Guinea by the G7++ Friends
of the Gulf of Guinea Group (FoGG).


Intensifying information-sharing and advancing maritime domain awareness
3. We support regional and international initiatives on information-sharing, maritime
awareness and surveillance, such as the Maritime Safety and Security
Information System (MSSIS) and the EU’s Common Information Sharing
Environment (CISE), as competent authorities’ and seafarers’ access to timely
and accurate information about incidents and developments related to maritime
security, including as regards ships’ cargo, is essential for rapid and adequate
response. We support regional organisations, coastal states and the shipping
industry in their endeavours, such as the Maritime Trade and Information Sharing
Centre – Gulf of Guinea project, to work together to collect and share information,
in the pursuit of the best possible maritime situation awareness. In this regard, we
encourage the creation of information-sharing and information fusion centres
(ISCs and IFCs), following the ReCAAP Information Sharing Centre, the
Singapore IFC and the Djibouti Code of Conduct ISCs models and welcome the
July 2013 Indian Ocean Commission decision to establish an information fusion
centre and an operations coordination centre for the Indian Ocean. We aim to
extend maritime information-sharing and surveillance beyond existing formats,
within the parameters of our respective national laws and policies, with the aim of
eventually creating comprehensive situational awareness of the global maritime
domain.


Fighting trafficking in human beings and smuggling of migrants,
4. We coordinate actions nationally and internationally ashore and at sea in order to
fight human trafficking and the smuggling of migrants in the maritime domain –
crimes that prey on the weakest members of society and cause unimaginable
hardship. We support the work of international organisations in this field. We aim
to combat these crimes and address the political and socio-economic drivers of
irregular migration. We underline the responsibility of countries of origin, transit
and destination to cooperate in order to prevent smuggling, human trafficking and
forced labour, to disrupt organised criminal groups involved in these activities and
to eliminate financing opportunities of such crimes. We call upon all states to ratify
or accede to and implement the United Nations Convention against Transnational
Organized Crime and its Protocols on trafficking in persons and smuggling of
migrants and international instruments protecting the human rights of all persons,
and support capacity building programmes to assist their implementation.


Securing the integrity of international lawful commerce
5. We encourage arrangements for information sharing and cooperation between
authorities to effectively identify and address threats related to international lawful
commerce. We support risk-based surveillance of goods movement in the
maritime domain, consistent with international law, in the fight against terrorist and
organised crime activities such as smuggling of goods, trafficking of weapons and
narcotics, along with cross-border movements of proceeds of this illegal trade.


Strengthening good governance and boosting economic development
6. We help to prevent piracy and other forms of maritime crime through our work on
and active commitment to good governance, functioning, capable and fair
governmental institutions, and the development of civil society and of legitimate
and inclusive political processes in states prone to piracy and other forms of
maritime crime. We support economic development, the creation of alternative
employment opportunities and the provision of basic social services in coastal
states in order to enhance social and political integration and to reduce structural
factors inherent in instability or conflict. We strive to address these challenges
within the parameters of our respective national priorities and programmes in
areas prone to piracy and other forms of maritime crime.


Spreading the rule of law
7. With a view to ensuring that the fight against piracy and other forms of maritime
crime is successful, we promote functioning and efficient national judicial systems,
including transparency, protection of human rights, and the effectiveness and
efficiency of state and non-state bodies involved in rule of law issues, including
criminal law. Perpetrators of such crimes should be brought to trial. We are
concerned about weak justice systems and the lack of resolve and/or capacity in
the judicial sector in many coastal states, resulting in a limited number of
perpetrators facing justice. We welcome the framework for prosecuting pirates in
the Horn of Africa region developed through the Contact Group on Piracy off the
Coast of Somalia, including the post-trial transfer system. We encourage efforts to
follow this example in other regions as appropriate. Graft and corruption nurture
illegal activities at sea. We encourage governments to address this problem more
decisively and consistent with international conventions such as the United
Nations Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC).


Enhancing the implementation of the existing regulatory framework for the
employment of private maritime security companies on board ships
8. We acknowledge the increasing role of preventive measures taken by ship and
cargo owners in combating piracy aimed at improving self-protection against
threats to the security of crews and vessels, including the use of private maritime
security companies (PMSC) providing privately contracted armed security
personnel (PCASP) on board sea-going vessels. We welcome flag states’ and
international efforts to raise the standards of conduct for PMSCs based on the
IMO guidance in this field. We encourage organisations representing the interests
of ship and cargo owners and maritime insurers to apply this guidance. We also
encourage efforts to develop and implement standards and codes of conduct for
private maritime security service providers to ensure respect for human rights in
their operations in cases not covered by flag state legislation. We furthermore
encourage exploring whether additional guidelines pertaining to the use of new
technologies in these self-protection efforts, such as unmanned air- and seaborne
vehicles, could be developed.


Promoting maritime governance to preserve coastal livelihoods and marine
biodiversity
9. We intend to step up efforts to ensure the implementation of measures and
regulations aimed at preventing illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing
and conserving and managing fish stocks, such as the United Nations Agreement
on the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly
Migratory Fish Stocks and the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
Agreement on Port State Measures to Prevent, Deter and Eliminate Illegal,
Unreported and Unregulated Fishing (PSMA). We call for a global record of
fishing vessels and for the implementation of IMO Assembly resolution A.
1078(28) to introduce unique identification numbers for all fishing vessels in order
to improve accountability and traceability. We encourage third countries and
regional and international organisations to adopt and implement policies in order
to prevent, deter and eliminate IUU fishing.


10. We reiterate the importance of the conservation and sustainable use of marine
biodiversity beyond areas of national jurisdiction and – following the
recommendations of the ad hoc open ended informal working group on
biodiversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction – expect the United Nations
General Assembly to take a decision before the end of its 69th session on the
development of an international instrument under UNCLOS to address this issue.


Outlook
11. We recognise that continued attention to the issue, further action at the
international level, and strengthened national, regional and international political
will are needed in order to enhance maritime security and the rules-based,
sustainable use of the global maritime domain. In light of that, we welcome
Germany’s intention to host a G7 High-level Meeting on Maritime Security later
this year.

FacebookTwitterGoogle BookmarksLinkedinRSS FeedPinterest
Pin It